Point of Interest: Ft. Morgan

On our family vacation, we stayed near the actual Ft. Morgan.  It is located on the very tip of the peninsula where the ferry transports people and cars to Dauphin Island and we ventured over to the island one afternoon.  You can read about Dauphin Island here:

http://townofdauphinisland.org/home.asp?ID=2

Two days later, we explored Ft. Morgan which was designed to control the main ship channel into Mobile Bay.  It is in a star shape which allowed it to defend the area and use heavy artillery against enemies.

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We were astonished at its size—the true example of a ‘RAMPARTS’ as the word immortalized in the Star Spangled Banner!  TMWLH was in the artillery during his Marine active duty days, so he was especially interested in the layout and artifacts located here.

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Walking through this tunnel leads one to an open area which is enormous.  This is where the troops would gather and be assigned to their various locations to defend Mobile Bay.

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A spectacular view from the top of the fort!  The arches were housing and offices for the troops in times past.  It is really an enormous area.  You can see the sea beyond the fort in the background.

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For many years it served as a lookout with a lighthouse located here—the actual lights used are located in the museum:

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While there is a great deal of history to this fort housed in the museum, I found this to be rather amusing:

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Seems that the Lightkeeper’s wife got a little bored with her husband. 

 

Family Vacation at Ft. Morgan

One day early in our stay at Ft. Morgan, we had a heavy downpour for a while.  Early evening, the skies cleared, and we saw this:

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A morning at the beach, only a short walk from where we stayed, required much preparation:  gathering up all the snacks, water bottles, beach chairs and umbrellas, toys, kids, and of course, the slathering on of sunblock. 

The family prepares for a beach trip:

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Off we go–

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Son and his wife in a good family portrait:

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image  Two of the three grandsons pictured.  They are ages 5 and 7.

One evening, the adults ventured to a fun restaurant about 3 miles from our home base called “Sassy Bass.” 

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A Corona Margarita pitcher!  We enjoyed this.  One slowly removes the bottle of beer which is upside down in the pitcher.  It’s very delicious.

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We dined on seafood—excellent!  Great fun to spend time with family, laughing, catching up on their activities. 

Tomorrow, I will post about Ft. Morgan itself which we found quite interesting.

My Summer Vacation

Remember those themes we had to write when we kids returned to classes in the fall?  I do!  They were always entitled, “My Summer Vacation by fill-in-the-blank-your-name” and began the 2 page essay describing your fun-filled summer vacation.

I just had one.  No, not a theme, Silly!, a summer vacation.  We went to………wait for it……..wait………

FT MORGAN, ALABAMA!

“Where’s zat?” Jabber asked……”Is it in LOWER L. A.?”*

Well, now that you asked……it’s just a little bit west of Gulf Shores, way out on a peninsula which runs maybe 22 miles into the Gulf.  We stayed 20 miles from the mainland on that peninsula, very close to Ft Morgan itself.  The fort is a very old and historic defense for Mobile Bay.  I’ll report more on that later.  *(By the way, for you non-Suthreners’, the term “lower L.A.” means Lower Alabama, not to be confused with Los Angeles.  We have our own form of abbreviations here in the South.)

On our drive down from Nashville, we had a little trouble….

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Have you ever seen such a flat tire?  We had a blowout, literally—the hole was on the outside of the tire, so we decided the tire itself was likely faulty.  These tires had 1300 miles on them—we know this because the car only had 1300 miles on it.

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Fortunately, we were able to get to a rest stop area and call AAA who was fast in responding to our plight.  The man removed the blown tire and replaced it with a brand new one! 

Finally, we arrived, only a couple hours behind schedule.  Here is the view from the house where we stayed:

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The homes look like those in fairy tales!  And they are all rentals as was our 3-story, 5 bedroom unit.  As you can see, we were quite close to the Gulf, easily within walking distance. 

As we relaxed after our 10 hour trip, we sat on one of the decks and listened to the LOUD CHOROUS of Frogs! who serenaded us.  They say,

‘ME MER…..ME MER……ME MER…..ME MER…….ME MER.’

But they say it out of synch, and very fast.  They provided us with this loud serenade for two nights, then quit.  It was really an amazing sound.

And that’s most of what we did at the start of our summer vacation.  The End.  (until later)

Kiwi

“Kiwi?” you might ask.  Why kiwi? 

Well, ‘cause.  Specifically ‘cause I had to peel 12 of them this morning.  Previously, adventures in peeling kiwi have been less than stellar—either one winds up cutting half the fruit off with the peeling or can’t get the peeling off the fruit efficaciously. 

“What are you talking about now?” Jabber asked as she wandered in to see the word ‘efficaciously.’  Jabber is not fond of reading big words, finding them a bit troublesome, especially when they must be written instead of just said in an off-handed manner.  Jabber is NOTHING if not off-handed.

For you, Jabber, here you go:  Efficaciously:  Producing or capable of producing a desired effect.   Synonym is effective.

“Bother!” said Jabber.  “You’re just filling in space for your blog, aren’t you?  Seein’ as how you haven’t actually blogged for a while.”

So, back to peeling kiwi.  I had this pile of them to peel.  Making four of those fruit tarts I wrote about a while ago.  Family get-together. 

So I did what every clever woman does, I looked up “best way to peel kiwi?” on the internets and lo! there was a host of videos and explanations!  So I watched a couple.

Here is one:

http://www.steamykitchen.com/1692-how-to-peel-and-cut-kiwi-fruit.html

Yep, one uses a tablespoon and a sharp knife!  It works and works well.  Want to see my results?  Okay, here you are:

image  The peelings left, and……….

Peeled and sliced kiwi belowimage

And, it didn’t take hours to do this, either.

I’ll combine these (after they are set on a colander and covered in the fridge for a few hours to drain) with strawberries, raspberries and blueberries to top the tarts.    The other fruits are already done.

There!  Now you’ve learned a new trick:  how to peel kiwi.  Maybe we’ll eat more since we know the technique.

“An’ maybe you’ll come up with something else to blog about soon.” Jabber wryly said under her breath.

 

Some interesting tidbits about the Founding Fathers

All of the tidbits are taken from this website:

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_founding_fathers_delaware.html#Read

I thought you might find this ‘quiz’ interesting—some little-known facts about our founding fathers.  Turns out, THEY WERE PEOPLE TOO!  All kinds of people—some “rogues” so to speak, some highly moral, some speculators, some who were rebellious (remember some were born in Europe).  Many had ten or more children, one or two had none.  They held all sorts of opinions about the new country they founded and some of these controversies continue to this very day.

HAPPY 4th OF JULY!

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“On February 21, 1787, the Continental Congress resolved that:

…it is expedient that on the second Monday in May next a Convention of delegates who shall have    been appointed by the several States be held at Philladelphia for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation…

The original states, except Rhode Island, collectively appointed 70 individuals to the Constitutional Convention, but a number did not accept or could not attend. Those who did not attend included Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams and, John Hancock.

In all, 55 delegates attended the Constitutional Convention sessions, but only 39 actually signed the Constitution.    The delegates ranged in age from Jonathan Dayton, aged 26, to Benjamin Franklin, aged 81, who was so infirm that he had to be carried to sessions in a sedan chair.”

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Who was the only signer of the Declaration of Independence who voted AGAINST the Declaration of Independence?

“He voted against independence on July 2, 1776, the only signer of the Declaration to do so, apparently either bowing to the strong Tory sentiment in Delaware, or believing reconciliation with Britain was still possible.”

George Read, Delaware

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“More importantly, he figured prominently because of his advocacy and co-authorship of the New Jersey, or ?? Plan, which asserted the rights of the small states against the large. He apparently returned to the convention only to sign the final document. “

William Paterson, New Jersey

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One representative has a murky history on his marriage—who might this be?”

Apparently while still in school, Bedford wed Jane B. Parker, who bore at least one daughter.”

Gunning Bedford, Jr., Delaware

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“One of the most aristocratic delegates at the convention, ??? was born in 1744 in County Carlow, Ireland. His father was Sir ???, member of Parliament and a baronet.

“Like so many younger sons of the British aristocracy who could not inherit their fathers’ estates because of primogeniture, ?? pursued a military career. He became a major in His Majesty’s 29th Regiment and during the colonial unrest was posted to Boston in 1768 to quell disturbances there.”

Remember, he was a signer of the U.S. Constitution!

Pierce Butler, South Carolina

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In New York, “…………. career continued to blossom. He served 4 years in the legislature (1802-5) and then as inspector of prisons (1802-10), alderman (1813-14), and U.S. commissioner of loans (1804). From 1804 to 1814 he held a directorship at the Manhattan Bank and later the presidency of City Bank. A devout Methodist, he also donated generously to philanthropic causes.”  But he signed as a delegate from Georgia!

William Few, Georgia

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“In the Pennsylvania assembly, he drafted an authorization to send delegates to Congress in 1776. It directed them to seek redress of grievances, but ordered them to oppose separation of the colonies from Britain.”  Which signer was this?

John Dickinson, Delaware

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“…….he represented the Federalists as Vice-Presidential candidate, and in 1804 and 1808 as the Presidential nominee. But he met defeat on all three occasions.”

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, South Carolina

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“Subsequently indicted for treason, (he) was not prosecuted but could not salvage his national political career. “

Jonathan Dayton, New Jersey

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“After his tavern-keeper father deserted his mother, he was reared by a relative, Peter Lawson, from whom he later inherited Bohemia Manor (MD.) estate.”

Richard Bassett, Delaware

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“To solve economic problems, at both national and state levels, he advocated high taxes rather than excessive borrowing or the issuance of paper currency.”

Roger Sherman, Connecticut

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Who was NOT a distinguished patriot?

“His only recorded service was the preparation of maps for George Washington before the Battle of Brandywine, PA. In 1776, at 24 years of age, ???? became assistant burgess of Wilmington. “

Jacob Broom, Delaware

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“Beginning in the preceding decade, he had begun efforts to advance the educational system in Georgia. Appointed with six others in 1784 to oversee the founding of a state college, he saw his dream come true in 1798 when Franklin College was founded. Modeled after Yale, it became the nucleus of the University of Georgia.”  (He was one of 12 children.)

Abraham Baldwin, Georgia

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“Meantime, in 1730 ?? had taken a common-law wife, Deborah Read, who was to bear him a son and daughter, and he also apparently had children with another nameless woman out of wedlock.” and

“Energetic nearly to the last, in 1787 he was elected as first president of the Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery-a cause to which he had committed himself as early as the 1730s. His final public act was signing a memorial to Congress recommending dissolution of the slavery system

Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania

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Which signer was the first Secretary of War?

“A staunch Federalist, he then accepted Washington’s offer of the post of Secretary of War and held it into the administration of John Adams. ?? looked to Hamilton rather than to Adams for leadership. As time passed, the latter became increasingly dissatisfied with ?? performance and distrustful of his political motives and in 1800 forced him to resign. Subsequently, the Democratic-Republicans accused him of maladministration, but a congressional committee vindicated him.”

James McHenry, Maryland

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“During these years, his political affiliations changed. As a supporter of a strong central government, he had been a member of the Federalist Party, but by the time of Jay’s Treaty (1794) he was opposing its policies. By 1801 he was firmly backing the Democratic-Republicans.”  (He ‘switched’ parties!)

John Langdon, New Hampshire

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“He never married.”

Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Maryland

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“When Charleston fell to the British the next year, the youth was captured and remained a prisoner until June 1781”

“……facilitated Spanish acquiescence in the transfer of Louisiana from France to the United States in 1803.”

Charles Pinckney, South Carolina  (the second cousin of fellow-signer Charles Cotesworth Pinckney)

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“Meanwhile, he had helped to raise troops and in May 1775 won appointment as a major in the Continental Army, which caused him to be expelled from his Quaker faith.”

Thomas Mifflin, Pennsylvania

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“His maternal grandmother reared him until he was 14, and he then spent a year with a missionary among the Mohawk Indians. He attended Yale and graduated in 1741.”

William Livingston, New Jersey

(Dr. Livingston I presume?  I couldn’t help myself!)

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“The British arrested him for high treason, but a group of patriots freed him”

David Brearly, New Jersey

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“In the last body, on July 1, 1776, he voted against independence, which he personally considered premature, but the next day he purposely absented himself to facilitate an affirmative ballot by his delegation.” and

“a key congressman, specialized in financial affairs and military procurement. Although he and his firm profited handsomely, had it not been for his assiduous labors the Continental Army would probably have been forced to demobilize. He worked closely with General Washington, wheedled money and supplies from the states, borrowed money in the face of overwhelming difficulties, and on occasion even obtained personal loans to further the war cause” and

“ (he)………speculated wildly, often on overextended credit, in lands in the West and at the site of Washington, DC. “ (and finally)

“(he)………was thrown into the Philadelphia debtor’s prison

Robert Morris, Pennsylvania

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“(His) older brother was John ??, the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States.”

Daniel Carroll, Maryland

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“ (his)………..political philosophy had begun to drift toward the Democratic-Republicans. In 1802, when he was defeated for the U.S. Senate, President Jefferson appointed him as a bankruptcy commissioner, and 2 years later as a Democratic-Republican he won election to the U.S. Senate.”

Nicholas Gilman, New Hampshire

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“Whose uncle was “first president of the College of William and Mary. “?

John Blair, Virginia

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“As a state legislator, he advocated a bicameral legislature and reform of the penal code and opposed capital punishment

George Clymer, Pennsylvania

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“Although a slaveholder all his life, he was active during his later years in the American Colonization Society, whose mission was the resettlement of slaves in Africa.”

James Madison, Virginia

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“an eldest child, was born in 1738 at Charlestown, MA, into an old Bay Colony family of modest means. His father operated a packet boat

Nathaniel Gorham, Massachusetts

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“…………..(he)decided to work for peace between Britain and the colonies and to oppose the extremist Whig faction. On that basis, he refused to participate in the First Continental Congress, to which he was elected in 1774, following service as a judge of the Connecticut colonial supreme court (1772-74).

“Although he was arrested in 1779 on charges of communicating with the enemy, he cleared himself and was released.

“Once the passions of war had ebbed, (he) resumed his political career. In the Continental Congress (1785-87), he was one of the most influential and popular delegates. Playing a major role in the Constitutional Convention, he missed no sessions after arriving on June 2; espoused the Connecticut Compromise; and chaired the Committee of Style, which shaped the final document. He also worked for ratification.”

William Samuel Johnson, Connecticut

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He had an outstanding career, all throughout his life, yet do we recall who he was?

“………believing that the issue of slavery could not be compromised but must be settled once and for all by the immediate establishment of a system of compensated emancipation and colonization, he denounced the Missouri Compromise”

Rufus King, Massachusetts

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“In 1797………That same year, he also apparently concocted a plan involving use of Indians, frontiersmen, and British naval forces to conquer for Britain the Spanish provinces of Florida and Louisiana.”

The House impeached him, but the Senate dropped the charges in 1799 on the grounds that no further action could be taken beyond his dismissal.”

William Blount, North Carolina

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“In 1781 he had been one of the founders of the Bank of North America. He also helped organize and held a directorship in the Insurance Company of North America and several times acted as president of the Chamber of Commerce. His financial affairs, like those somewhat earlier of his associate and fellow-signer Robert Morris, took a disastrous turn in 1805. He later regained some of his affluence, but his reputation suffered. “

Thomas Fitzsimons, Pennsylvania

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“Only 44 years old in 1802, ??? was struck down in a duel at New Bern with a political rival, Federalist John Stanly. So ended the promising career of one of the state’s foremost leaders. He was buried in the family sepulcher at Clermont estate, near New Bern.”

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., North Carolina

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“He was the illegitimate son of a common-law marriage between a poor itinerant Scottish merchant of aristocratic descent and an English-French Huguenot mother who was a planter’s daughter.” and

“Burr, taking offense at remarks he believed to have originated with ???, challenged him to a duel, which took place at present Weehawken, NJ, on July 11. Mortally wounded, (he) died the next day.”

Alexander Hamilton, New York

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“After the Battle of Camden, SC, he frequently crossed British lines to tend to the wounded. He also prevented sickness among the troops by paying close attention to food, clothing, shelter, and hygiene.”  (This man was highly talented in many fields!)

Hugh Williamson, North Carolina

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“In the midst of the Revolutionary fervor, which neither father nor son shared, in 1773, on the advice of the elder ????, sailed to London and studied law at the Middle Temple. Completing his work in 1776, he made a 2-year tour of the Continent, during which time for some reason he shed his Loyalist sympathies.”  (He changed his mind!)

Jared Ingersoll, Pennsylvania

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“He was a Presidential elector in 1789 and Washington then appointed him as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, but for some reason he apparently served only a short time. In 1791 he became chief justice of the his state’s supreme court. Four years later, Washington again appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court, this time as Chief Justice to replace John Jay. “  (He was not confirmed, partially due to mental illness concerns.)

John Rutledge, South Carolina

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“In the fall of 1779, during a period of inflation and food shortages, a mob which included many militiamen and was led by radical constitutionalists, set out to attack the republican leadership. (He) was a prime target. He and some 35 of his colleagues barricaded themselves in his home at Third and Walnut Streets, thereafter known as “Fort ??.” During a brief skirmish, several people on both sides were killed or wounded. The shock cooled sentiments and pardons were issued all around, though major political battles over the commonwealth constitution still lay ahead.”

James Wilson, Pennsylvania

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“In early life, he lost a leg in a carriage accident.”

Gouverneur Morris, Pennsylvania

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“was born into the landed gentry in 1732…………. Until reaching 16 years of age, he lived there and at other plantations along the Rivers”  “His education was rudimentary, probably being obtained from tutors but possibly also from private schools, and he learned surveying.”

“then wed ??, a wealthy widow and mother of two children. The marriage produced no offspring, but (he) reared those of his wife as his own”

“he urged his countrymen to forswear party spirit and sectional differences and to avoid entanglement in the wars and domestic policies of other nations.”

George Washington, Virginia

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Rhode Island
Rhode Island did not send any delegates to the Constitutional Convention.

The Declaration of Independence

And here, copied from website linked at the bottom, are the original words of our Declaration of Independence.  How long since we have read this?  Seems now is as good a time as any!

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts:
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery

Connecticut:
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott

New York:
William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris

New Jersey:
Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania:
Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross

Delaware:
Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Maryland:
Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia:
George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

North Carolina:
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn

South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Georgia:
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

http://www.ushistory.org/Declaration/document/index.htm

U.S. Constitution Preamble

Today, the 3rd of July, it seems appropriate to consider what it is we are celebrating tomorrow, Independence Day.  The Preamble of the U.S. Constitution is short and concise, beginning the Constitution itself—and worthy of reflection for a moment for all Americans.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

http://www.usconstitution.net/xconst_preamble.html

Clicking on words which are underlined in the Preamble from the above site, one goes to these definitions (I made some sentences appear in bold):

Domestic Tranquility
One of the concerns of the Framers was that the government prior to that under the Constitution was unable, by force or persuasion, to quell rebellion or quarrels amongst the states. The government watched in horror as Shay’s Rebellion transpired just before the Convention, and some states had very nearly gone to war with each other over territory (such as between Pennsylvania and Connecticut over Wilkes-Barre). One of the main goals of the Convention, then, was to ensure the federal government had powers to squash rebellion and to smooth tensions between states.

“Defence’

Finally, at that time, the American spelling of words was inconsistent at best, and several words are spelled in the British manner. These words are "defence," "controul," and "labour." In America, we would today write these words as "defense," "control," and "labor."

Welfare
welfare n. 1. health, happiness, or prosperity; well-being. [<ME wel faren, to fare well] Source: AHD

Welfare in today’s context also means organized efforts on the part of public or private organizations to benefit the poor, or simply public assistance. This is not the meaning of the word as used in the Constitution.

Posterity
posterity n. 1. Future generations. 2. All of a person’s descendants. [<Lat. posteritas.] Source: AHD

Ordain
ordain v. 2. To order by or as if by decree. [<Lat. ordinaire, to organize] Source: AHD

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